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Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. Dictionary apps. This is due to the time needed for the exhaust system and turbocharger to generate the required boost which can also be referred to as spooling.
Inertia, friction, and compressor load are the primary contributors to turbocharger lag. Superchargers do not suffer this problem, because the turbine is eliminated due to the compressor being directly powered by the engine.
Turbocharger applications can be categorized into those that require changes in output power such as automotive and those that do not such as marine, aircraft, commercial automotive, industrial, engine-generators, and locomotives.
While important to varying degrees, turbocharger lag is most problematic in applications that require rapid changes in power output.
Engine designs reduce lag in a number of ways:. Sometimes turbo lag is mistaken for engine speeds that are below boost threshold. If engine speed is below a turbocharger's boost threshold rpm then the time needed for the vehicle to build speed and rpm could be considerable, maybe even tens of seconds for a heavy vehicle starting at low vehicle speed in a high gear.
This wait for vehicle speed increase is not turbo lag, it is improper gear selection for boost demand. Once the vehicle reaches sufficient speed to provide the required rpm to reach boost threshold, there will be a far shorter delay while the turbo itself builds rotational energy and transitions to positive boost, only this last part of the delay in achieving positive boost is the turbo lag.
The boost threshold of a turbocharger system is the lower bound of the region within which the compressor operates. Below a certain rate of flow, a compressor produces insignificant boost.
This limits boost at a particular RPM, regardless of exhaust gas pressure. Newer turbocharger and engine developments have steadily reduced boost thresholds.
Electrical boosting "E-boosting" is a new technology under development. It uses an electric motor to bring the turbocharger up to operating speed quicker than possible using available exhaust gases.
This makes compressor speed independent of turbine speed. Turbochargers start producing boost only when a certain amount of kinetic energy is present in the exhaust gasses.
Without adequate exhaust gas flow to spin the turbine blades, the turbocharger cannot produce the necessary force needed to compress the air going into the engine.
The boost threshold is determined by the engine displacement , engine rpm, throttle opening, and the size of the turbocharger.
The operating speed rpm at which there is enough exhaust gas momentum to compress the air going into the engine is called the "boost threshold rpm".
Reducing the "boost threshold rpm" can improve throttle response. Many turbocharger installations use additional technologies , such as wastegates, intercooling and blow-off valves.
Energy provided for the turbine work is converted from the enthalpy and kinetic energy of the gas. The turbine housings direct the gas flow through the turbine as it spins at up to , rpm.
Often the same basic turbocharger assembly is available from the manufacturer with multiple housing choices for the turbine, and sometimes the compressor cover as well.
This lets the balance between performance, response, and efficiency be tailored to the application. The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust that can flow through the system, and the relative efficiency at which they operate.
In general, the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel the larger the flow capacity. Measurements and shapes can vary, as well as curvature and number of blades on the wheels.
A turbocharger's performance is closely tied to its size. Small turbochargers spin quickly, but may not have the same performance at high acceleration.
Twin-turbo or bi-turbo designs have two separate turbochargers operating in either a sequence or in parallel. In a sequential setup one turbocharger runs at low speeds and the second turns on at a predetermined engine speed or load.
Two-stage variable twin-turbos employ a small turbocharger at low speeds and a large one at higher speeds. They are connected in a series so that boost pressure from one turbocharger is multiplied by another, hence the name "2-stage.
Twin turbochargers are primarily used in Diesel engines. Both turbochargers operate together in mid range, with the smaller one pre-compressing the air, which the larger one further compresses.
A bypass valve regulates the exhaust flow to each turbocharger. At higher speed 2, to 3, RPM only the larger turbocharger runs. Smaller turbochargers have less turbo lag than larger ones, so often two small turbochargers are used instead of one large one.
This configuration is popular in engines over 2. Twin-scroll or divided turbochargers have two exhaust gas inlets and two nozzles, a smaller sharper angled one for quick response and a larger less angled one for peak performance.
With high-performance camshaft timing, exhaust valves in different cylinders can be open at the same time, overlapping at the end of the power stroke in one cylinder and the end of exhaust stroke in another.
In twin-scroll designs, the exhaust manifold physically separates the channels for cylinders that can interfere with each other, so that the pulsating exhaust gasses flow through separate spirals scrolls.
With common firing order 1—3—4—2, two scrolls of unequal length pair cylinders 1 and 4, and 3 and 2. This lets the engine efficiently use exhaust scavenging techniques, which decreases exhaust gas temperatures and NO x emissions, improves turbine efficiency, and reduces turbo lag evident at low engine speeds.
Cut-out of a twin-scroll exhaust and turbine; the dual "scrolls" pairing cylinders 1 and 4, and 2 and 3 are clearly visible. Variable-geometry or variable-nozzle turbochargers use moveable vanes to adjust the air-flow to the turbine, imitating a turbocharger of the optimal size throughout the power curve.
Their angle is adjusted by an actuator to block or increase air flow to the turbine. The result is that the turbocharger improves fuel efficiency without a noticeable level of turbocharger lag.
The compressor increases the mass of intake air entering the combustion chamber. The compressor is made up of an impeller, a diffuser and a volute housing.
The flow range of a turbocharger compressor can be increased by allowing air to bleed from a ring of holes or a circular groove around the compressor at a point slightly downstream of the compressor inlet but far nearer to the inlet than to the outlet.
The ported shroud is a performance enhancement that allows the compressor to operate at significantly lower flows.
It achieves this by forcing a simulation of impeller stall to occur continuously. Allowing some air to escape at this location inhibits the onset of surge and widens the operating range.
While peak efficiencies may decrease, high efficiency may be achieved over a greater range of engine speeds. Increases in compressor efficiency result in slightly cooler more dense intake air, which improves power.
This is a passive structure that is constantly open in contrast to compressor exhaust blow off valves, which are mechanically or electronically controlled.
The ability of the compressor to provide high boost at low rpm may also be increased marginally because near choke conditions the compressor draws air inward through the bleed path.
Ported shrouds are used by many turbocharger manufacturers. The centre hub rotating assembly CHRA houses the shaft that connects the compressor impeller and turbine.
It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft, allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction.
For instance, in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil.
The CHRA may also be considered "water-cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant. Water-cooled models use engine coolant to keep lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible oil coking destructive distillation of engine oil from the extreme heat in the turbine.
The development of air- foil bearings removed this risk. Ball bearings designed to support high speeds and temperatures are sometimes used instead of fluid bearings to support the turbine shaft.
This helps the turbocharger accelerate more quickly and reduces turbo lag. When the pressure of the engine's intake air is increased, its temperature also increases.
This occurrence can be explained through Gay-Lussac's law , stating that the pressure of a given amount of gas held at constant volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature.
In addition, heat soak from the hot exhaust gases spinning the turbine will also heat the intake air. The warmer the intake air, the less dense, and the less oxygen available for the combustion event, which reduces volumetric efficiency.
Not only does excessive intake-air temperature reduce efficiency, it also leads to engine knock, or detonation , which is destructive to engines.
To compensate for the increase in temperature, turbocharger units often make use of an intercooler between successive stages of boost to cool down the intake air.Turbocharging Performance Handbook. Röderer Champagner temperature is known as the compressor discharge temperature CDT and highlights why a method for cooling the air after the compressor is so important. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles needing Wimbledon Heute Live references from October All articles needing additional references Lustagenten Login with hAudio microformats Articles needing additional references from May Commons category link is on Wikidata. See the full list. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Twin International Cup are primarily used in Diesel engines. Front-mount intercoolers can have the potential to give better cooling compared Paderborn Hoffenheim that of a top-mount. Send MSN Feedback. Edit Cast Credited cast: Jonny Bogris You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. High cruise flight also allows more time to evaluate issues before a forced landing must be made. Please give an overall site rating:. A turbocharger's performance is closely tied to its size.